The Effect of Frontal Air Bags on Eye Injury Patterns in Automobile Crashes | Ophthalmology | JAMA Ophthalmology | JAMA Network
[Skip to Navigation]
Access to paid content on this site is currently suspended due to excessive activity being detected from your IP address 34.239.177.24. Please contact the publisher to request reinstatement.
1.
Deery  HAMorris  APFildes  BNNewstead  SV Airbag technology in Australian passenger cars: preliminary results from real-world crash investigations.  Crash Prev Inj Control. 1999;1121- 128Google ScholarCrossref
2.
Asaria  RHZaman  ASullivan  PM Retinitis sclopetaria associated with air bag inflation.  Br J Ophthalmol. 1999;831094- 1095Google ScholarCrossref
3.
Baker  RSFlower  CWSingh  PSmith  ACasey  R Corneoscleral laceration caused by air bag trauma.  Am J Ophthalmol. 1996;121709- 711Google Scholar
4.
Ball  DCBouchard  CS Ocular morbidity associated with air bag deployment: a report of 7 cases and a review of the literature.  Cornea. 2001;20159- 163Google ScholarCrossref
5.
Bhavsar  ARChen  TCGoldstein  DA Corneoscleral laceration associated with passenger-side air bag inflation.  Br J Ophthalmol. 1997;81514- 515Google ScholarCrossref
6.
Biechl-Lautenbach  KSGloor  BWalz  F Severe perforating eye injury caused by an air bag in a traffic skid accident.  Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd. 1996;208196- 200Google ScholarCrossref
7.
Braude  LS Protective eyewear needed with driver's side air bag [letter]?  Arch Ophthalmol. 1992;110- 1201Google Scholar
8.
Braude  LS Passenger side air bag ocular injury while wearing sunglasses [letter].  Br J Ophthalmol. 1995;79- 391Google Scholar
9.
Cacciatori  MBell  RWDHabib  NE Blow-out fracture of the orbit associated with inflation of an airbag: a case report.  Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1997;35241- 242Google ScholarCrossref
10.
Campbell  JK Automobile air bag eye injuries.  Nebr Med J. 1993;78306- 307Google Scholar
11.
Chialant  DDamji  KF Ultrasound biomicroscopy in diagnosis of a cyclodialysis cleft in a patient with corneal edema and hypotony after an air bag injury.  Can J Ophthalmol. 2000;35148- 150Google Scholar
12.
Dalmotas  DJGerman  AHendrick  BEHurley  RM Airbag deployments: the Canadian experience.  J Trauma. 1995;38476- 481Google ScholarCrossref
13.
Driver  PJCashwell  RYeatts  P Airbag-associated bilateral hyphemas and angle recession.  Am J Ophthalmol. 1994;118250- 251Google Scholar
14.
Dubois  JStewart  E Ocular injuries from air bag deployment.  J Ophthalmic Nurs Technol. 1998;17147- 150Google Scholar
15.
Fukagawa  KTsubota  KKimura  C  et al.  Corneal endothelial cell loss induced by air bags.  Ophthalmology. 1993;1001819- 1823Google ScholarCrossref
16.
Gault  JAVichnin  MCJaeger  EAJeffers  JB Ocular injuries associated with eyeglass wear and air bag inflation.  J Trauma. 1995;38494- 497Google ScholarCrossref
17.
Geggel  HSGriggs  PBFreeman  MI Irreversible bullous keratopathy after air bag trauma.  CLAO J. 1996;22148- 150Google Scholar
18.
Giguere  JFSt-Vil  DTurmel  A  et al.  Airbags and children: a spectrum of C-spine injuries.  J Pediatr Surg. 1998;33811- 816Google ScholarCrossref
19.
Goldberg  MAValluri  SPepose  JS Air bag related corneal rupture after radial keratotomy.  Am J Ophthalmol. 1995;120800- 802Google Scholar
20.
Han  DP Retinal detachment caused by air bag injury.  Arch Ophthalmol. 1993;1111317- 1318Google ScholarCrossref
21.
Huelke  DFMoore  JLOstrom  M Air bag injuries and occupant protection.  J Trauma. 1992;33894- 898Google ScholarCrossref
22.
Hunt  L Ocular injuries from driver's air bag.  Insight. 1995;2018- 19Google Scholar
23.
Ingraham  HJPerry  HDDonnenfeld  ED Air-bag keratitis.  N Engl J Med. 1991;3241599- 1600Google Scholar
24.
Kuhn  FMorris  RWitherspoon  CD Eye injury and the air bag.  Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 1995;638- 44Google ScholarCrossref
25.
Larkin  GL Airbag mediated corneal injury.  Am J Emerg Med. 1991;9444- 446Google ScholarCrossref
26.
Lee  WBO'Halloran  HSPearson  PASen  HAReddy  SH Airbags and bilateral eye injury: 5 case reports and a review of the literature.  J Emerg Med. 2001;20129- 134Google ScholarCrossref
27.
Lemley  HLChodosh  JWolf  TCBogie  CPHawkins  TC Partial dislocation of laser in situ keratomileusis flap by air bag injury.  J Refract Surg. 2000;16373- 374Google Scholar
28.
Lesher  MPDurrie  DSStiles  MC Corneal edema, hyphema, and angle recession after air bag inflation.  Arch Ophthalmol. 1993;1111320- 1322Google ScholarCrossref
29.
Lueder  GT Air bag–associated ocular trauma in children.  Ophthalmology. 2000;1071472- 1475Google ScholarCrossref
30.
Manche  EEGoldberg  RAMondino  BJ Air bag related ocular injuries.  Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 1997;28246- 250Google Scholar
31.
McDermott  MLShin  DHHughes  BAVale  S Anterior segment trauma and air bags [letter].  Arch Ophthalmol. 1995;1131567- 1568Google ScholarCrossref
32.
Michaeli-Cohen  ANeufeld  MLazar  MGeyer  OHaddad  RKashtan  H Bilateral corneal contusion and angle recession caused by an airbag.  Br J Ophthalmol. 1996;80487Google ScholarCrossref
33.
Mishler  KE Hyphema caused by air bag [letter].  Arch Ophthalmol. 1991;1091635Google ScholarCrossref
34.
Molia  LMStroh  E Airbag injury during low impact collision.  Br J Ophthalmol. 1996;80487- 488Google ScholarCrossref
35.
Morrison  ALChute  DRadentz  SGolle  MTroncoso  JCSmialek  JE Air bag–associated injury to a child in the front passenger seat.  Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1998;19218- 22Google ScholarCrossref
36.
Norden  RAPerry  HDDonnenfeld  EDMontoya  C Air bag–induced corneal flap folds after laser in situ keratomileusis.  Am J Ophthalmol. 2000;130234- 235Google ScholarCrossref
37.
O'Halloran  HSDraud  KStevens  JL Primary enucleation as a consequence of air bag injury.  J Trauma. 1998;441090Google ScholarCrossref
38.
Onwuzuruigbo  CJFulda  GJLarned  DHailstone  D Traumatic blindness after air bag deployment: bilateral lenticular dislocation.  J Trauma. 1996;40314- 316Google ScholarCrossref
39.
Rimmer  SShuler  JD Severe ocular trauma from a driver side air bag [letter].  Arch Ophthalmol. 1991;109774Google ScholarCrossref
40.
Rosenblatt  MFreilich  BKirsch  D Air bags: trade-offs.  N Engl J Med. 1991;3251518- 1519Google Scholar
41.
Rosenblatt  MFreilich  BKirsch  D Air bag–associated ocular injury [letter].  Arch Ophthalmol. 1993;1111318Google ScholarCrossref
42.
Ruiz-Moreno  JM Air bag–associated retinal tear.  Eur J Ophthalmol. 1998;852- 53Google Scholar
43.
Sastry  SMCopeland  RAMezghebe  HSiram  SM Retinal hemorrhage secondary airbag-related ocular trauma.  J Trauma. 1995;38582Google ScholarCrossref
44.
Scott  IUJohn  GRStark  WJ Airbag-associated ocular injury [letter].  Arch Ophthalmol. 1993;11125Google ScholarCrossref
45.
Scott  IUGreenfield  DSParrish  RK Airbag-associated injury producing cyclodialysis cleft and ocular hypotony.  Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 1996;27955- 957Google Scholar
46.
Shah  GKPenne  RGrand  MG Purtscher's retinopathy secondary to air bag injury.  Retina. 2001;2168- 69Google ScholarCrossref
47.
Singer  HW Potential air bag–related eye injuries require special ER attention.  J Ophthalmic Nurs Technol. 1998;1721- 22Google Scholar
48.
Smally  AJBinzer  ADolin  SViano  D Alkaline chemical keratitis: eye injury from airbags.  Ann Emerg Med. 1992;211400- 1402Google ScholarCrossref
49.
Smock  WSNichols  GR Airbag module cover injuries.  J Trauma. 1995;38489- 493Google ScholarCrossref
50.
Stein  JDJaeger  EAJeffers  JB Air bags and ocular injuries.  Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1999;9759- 82Google Scholar
51.
Steinmann  R A 40-year-old woman with an air bag–mediated injury.  J Emerg Nurs. 1992;18308- 310Google Scholar
52.
Stranc  MF Eye injury resulting from the deployment of an air bag [letter].  Br J Plast Surg. 1999;52418Google ScholarCrossref
53.
Swanson-Biearman  BMrvos  RDean  BSKrenzelok  EP Air bags: lifesaving with toxic potential.  Am J Emerg Med. 1993;1138- 39Google ScholarCrossref
54.
Totten  VYFani-Salek  MHChandramohan  K Hyphema associated with air bag deployment in a pediatric trauma patient.  Am J Emerg Med. 1998;16102- 103Google ScholarCrossref
55.
Tsuda  YWakiyama  HAmemiya  T Ocular injury caused by an air bag for a driver wearing eyeglasses.  Jpn J Ophthalmol. 1999;43239- 240Google ScholarCrossref
56.
Vichnin  MCJaeger  EAGault  JAJeffers  JB Ocular injuries related to air bag inflation.  Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 1995;26542- 548Google Scholar
57.
Walter  DPJames  MR An unusual mechanism of air bag injury.  Injury. 1996;27523- 524Google ScholarCrossref
58.
Walz  FHMackay  MGloor  B Airbag deployment and eye perforation by a tobacco pipe.  J Trauma. 1995;38498- 501Google ScholarCrossref
59.
Weinman  SA Automobile air bag-mediated injury: a case presentation.  J Emerg Nurs. 1995;2184- 85Google ScholarCrossref
60.
Whitacre  MMPilchard  WAKan  SM Air bag injury producing retinal dialysis and detachment [letter].  Arch Ophthalmol. 1993;1111320Google ScholarCrossref
61.
White  JEMcClafferty  KOrton  RBTokareqicz  ACNowak  ES Ocular alkali burn associated with automobile air-bag activation.  CMAJ. 1995;153933- 934Google Scholar
62.
Zabriskie  NAHwang  IPRamsey  JFCrandall  AS Anterior lens capsule rupture caused by air bag trauma.  Am J Ophthalmol. 1997;123832- 833Google Scholar
63.
Zacovic  JWMcGuirk  TDKnoop  KJ Bilateral hyphemas as a result of air bag deployment [letter].  Am J Emerg Med. 1997;15323- 324Google ScholarCrossref
64.
Müller-Jensen  KHollweck  W Serious eye injuries produced by windshield damage: an actual problem in ophthalmology.  Stapp Car Crash Conference Proceedings Warrendale, Pa Society of Automotive Engineers1970;Google Scholar
65.
Duma  SMKress  TAPorta  DJ  et al.  Air bag induced eye injuries: a report of 25 cases.  J Trauma. 1996;41114- 119Google ScholarCrossref
66.
Ghafouri  ABurgess  SKHrdlicka  ZKZagelbaum  BM Air bag related ocular trauma.  Am J Emerg Med. 1997;15389- 392Google ScholarCrossref
67.
Duma  SMCrandall  JR Eye injuries from airbags with seamless module covers.  J Trauma. 2000;48786- 789Google ScholarCrossref
68.
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, National Automotive Sampling System: Crashworthiness Data System, 1993-1999[database on CD-ROM].  Washington, DC Dept of Transportation1999;HS report 808985
69.
Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, The Abbreviated Injury Scale, 1998 Revision.  Barrington, Ill Association for the Advancement of Automative Medicine1998;
70.
Atkinson  TAtkinson  P Knee injuries in motor vehicle collisions: a study of the National Accident Sampling System database for the years 1979-1995.  Accid Anal Prev. 2000;32779- 786Google ScholarCrossref
71.
Farmer  CMBraver  ERMitter  EL Two-vehicle side impact crashes: the relationship of vehicle and crash characteristics to injury severity.  Accid Anal Prev. 1997;29399- 406Google ScholarCrossref
72.
Miller  TRPindus  NMDouglass  JB Medically related motor vehicle injury costs by body region and severity.  J Trauma. 1993;34270- 275Google ScholarCrossref
73.
Reiff  DAMcGwin  GRue  LW Splenic injury in side impact motor vehicle collisions: effect of occupant restraints.  J Trauma. 2001;51340- 345Google ScholarCrossref
74.
Segui-Gomez  M Driver air bag effectiveness by severity of the crash.  Am J Public Health. 2000;901575- 1581Google ScholarCrossref
75.
Viano  DCCulver  CCEvans  LFrick  MScott  R Involvement of older drivers in multivehicle side-impact crashes.  Accid Anal Prev. 1990;22177- 188Google ScholarCrossref
76.
Burnstein  YKlapper  DHersh  PS Experimental globe rupture after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy.  Arch Ophthalmol. 1995;1131056- 1059Google ScholarCrossref
77.
Campos  MLee  MMcDonnell  PJ Ocular integrity after refractive surgery: effects of photorefractive keratectomy, phototherapeutic keratectomy, and radial keratotomy.  Ophthalmic Surg. 1992;23598- 602Google Scholar
78.
Casebeer  JCShapiro  DRPhillips  S Severe ocular trauma without corneal rupture after radial keratotomy: case reports.  J Refract Corneal Surg. 1994;1031- 33Google Scholar
79.
John  ME  JrSchmitt  TE Traumatic hyphema after radial keratotomy.  Ann Ophthalmol. 1983;15930- 932Google Scholar
80.
Peacock  LWSlade  SGMartiz  JChuang  AYee  RW Ocular integrity after refractive procedures.  Ophthalmology. 1997;1041079- 1083Google ScholarCrossref
81.
Alvi  NPDonohue  EKCurnyn  KSugar  J Rupture of radial keratotomy sites after presumed blunt trauma.  Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 1995;26574- 575Google Scholar
82.
Binder  PSWaring  GOArrowsmith  PNWang  C Histopathology of traumatic corneal rupture after radial keratotomy.  Arch Ophthalmol. 1988;1061584- 1590Google ScholarCrossref
83.
Chaudhry  NASmiddy  WE Displacement of corneal cap during vitrectomy in a post-LASIK eye.  Retina. 1998;18554- 555Google ScholarCrossref
84.
Glasgow  BJBrown  HHAizuss  DHMondino  BJFoos  RY Traumatic dehiscence of incisions seven years after radial keratotomy.  Am J Ophthalmol. 1988;106703- 707Google Scholar
85.
Leung  ATRao  SKLam  DS Traumatic partial unfolding of laser in situ keratomileusis flap with severe epithelial ingrowth.  J Cataract Refract Surg. 2000;26135- 139Google ScholarCrossref
86.
Lindquist  TD Complications of corneal refractive surgery.  Int Ophthalmol Clin. 1992;3297- 114Google ScholarCrossref
87.
McDonnell  PJLean  JSSchanzlin  DJ Globe rupture from blunt trauma after hexagonal keratotomy.  Am J Ophthalmol. 1987;103241- 242Google Scholar
88.
Pearlstein  ESAgapitos  PJCantrill  HLHolland  EJWilliams  PLindstrom  RL Ruptured globe after radial keratotomy.  Am J Ophthalmol. 1988;106755- 756Google Scholar
89.
Rashid  ERWaring  GO Complications of refractive keratotomy. Waring  GOed Refractive Keratotomy for Myopia and Astigmatism St Louis, Mo Mosby–Year Book Inc1992;863- 936Google Scholar
90.
Vinger  PFMieler  WFOestreicher  JHEasterbrook  M Ruptured globes following radial and hexagonal keratotomy surgery.  Arch Ophthalmol. 1996;114129- 134Google ScholarCrossref
91.
Zhaboedov  GDBondareva  GS Traumatic rupture of the eyeball after radial keratotomy [in Russian].  Vestn Oftalmol. 1990;10664- 65Google Scholar
Clinical Sciences
November 2002

The Effect of Frontal Air Bags on Eye Injury Patterns in Automobile Crashes

Author Affiliations

From the Impact Biomechanics Laboratory, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg (Drs Duma and Herring, Ms Jernigan, and Mr Stitzel); the US Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Fort Rucker, Ala (Dr Crowley and Mr Brozoski); and the Automobile Safety Laboratory, University of Virginia, Charlottesville (Dr Bass).

Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120(11):1517-1522. doi:10.1001/archopht.120.11.1517
Abstract

Objective  To investigate eye injuries resulting from frontal automobile crashes and to determine the effects of frontal air bags.

Methods  The National Automotive Sampling System database files from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 1999, were examined in a 3-part study that included an investigation of 22 236 individual crashes that occurred in the United States. A new 4-level eye injury severity scale that quantifies injuries based on recovery time, need for surgery, and possible loss of sight was developed.

Results  Of all occupants who were exposed to an air bag deployment, 3% sustained an eye injury. In contrast, 2% of occupants not exposed to an air bag deployment sustained an eye injury. A closer examination of the type of eye injuries showed that there was a statistically significant increase in the risk of corneal abrasions for occupants who were exposed to an air bag compared with those who were not (P = .03). Of occupants exposed to an air bag deployment, 0.5% sustained a corneal abrasion compared with 0.04% of occupants who were not exposed to an air bag.

Conclusions  Using the new injury levels, it was shown that although occupants exposed to an air bag deployment had a higher risk of sustaining minor eye injuries, the air bag appears to have provided a beneficial exchange by reducing the number of severe eye injuries.

×