Prospective Study of Alcohol Consumption and the Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration | Lifestyle Behaviors | JAMA Ophthalmology | JAMA Network
[Skip to Navigation]
Access to paid content on this site is currently suspended due to excessive activity being detected from your IP address 18.206.238.77. Please contact the publisher to request reinstatement.
1.
Klein  RKlein  BELinton  KL Prevalence of age-related maculopathy: the Beaver Dam Eye Study.  Ophthalmology. 1992;99933- 943Google ScholarCrossref
2.
Evans  JWormald  R Is the incidence of registrable age-related macular degeneration increasing?  Br J Ophthalmol. 1996;809- 14Google ScholarCrossref
3.
Bressler  NMBressler  SB Age-related macular degeneration.  Ophthalmology. 1995;1021206- 1211Google ScholarCrossref
4.
Cho  EHung  SSeddon  JM Nutrition and age-related macular degeneration: a review. Berger  JWFine  SLMaguire  MGeds. Age-Related Macular Degeneration St Louis, Mo Mosby–Year Book Inc1998;57- 67Google Scholar
5.
Seddon  JMWillett  WCSpeizer  FEHankinson  SE A prospective study of cigarette smoking and age-related macular degeneration in women.  JAMA. 1996;2761141- 1146Google ScholarCrossref
6.
Seddon  JM Epidemiology of age-related macular degeneration. Albert  DMJakobiec  FAeds. Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology Philadelphia, Pa WB Saunders Inc1999;521- 531Google Scholar
7.
Verhoeff  FHGrossman  HP Pathogenesis of disciform degeneration of the macula.  Arch Ophthalmol. 1937;18561- 585Google ScholarCrossref
8.
Snow  KKSeddon  JM Do age-related macular degeneration and cardiovascular disease share commom antecedents?  Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 1999;6125- 143Google ScholarCrossref
9.
Sarks  SHSarks  JP Age-related macular degeneration: atrophic form. Ryan  SJSchachat  APMurphy  RMeds. Retina St Louis, Mo Mosby–Year Book Inc1994;149- 173Google Scholar
10.
Manson  JETosteson  HTRidker  PM  et al.  The primary prevention of myocardial infarction.  N Engl J Med. 1992;3261406- 1416Google ScholarCrossref
11.
Obisesan  TOHirsch  RKosoko  OCarlson  LParrott  M Moderate wine consumption is associated with decreased odds of developing age-related macular degeneration in NHANES-1.  J Am Geriatr Soc. 1998;461- 7Google Scholar
12.
Willett  WCSampson  LStampfer  MJ  et al.  Reproducibility and validity of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire.  Am J Epidemiol. 1985;12251- 65Google Scholar
13.
Rimm  EBGiovannucci  ELStampfer  MJColditz  GALitin  LBWillett  WC Reproducibility and validity of an expanded self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire among male health professionals.  Am J Epidemiol. 1992;1351114- 1126Google Scholar
14.
Giovannucci  EColditz  GStampfer  MJ  et al.  The assessment of alcohol consumption by a simple self-administered questionnaire.  Am J Epidemiol. 1991;133810- 817Google Scholar
15.
Cupples  LAD'Agostino  RBAnderson  KKannel  WB Comparison of baseline and repeated measure covariate techniques in the Framingham Heart Study.  Stat Med. 1988;7205- 218Google ScholarCrossref
16.
DerSimonian  RLaird  N Meta-analysis in clinical trials.  Control Clin Trials. 1986;7177- 188Google ScholarCrossref
17.
Goldberg  JFlowerdew  GSmith  EBrody  JATso  MO Factors associated with age-related macular degeneration: an analysis of data from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  Am J Epidemiol. 1988;128700- 710Google Scholar
18.
Hyman  LGLilienfeld  AMFerris  FLFine  SL Senile macular degeneration: a case-control study.  Am J Epidemiol. 1983;118213- 227Google Scholar
19.
The Eye Disease Case-Control Study Group, Risk factors for neovascular age-related macular degeneration.  Arch Ophthalmol. 1992;1101701- 1708Google ScholarCrossref
20.
Klein  RKlein  BEFranke  T The relationship of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors to age-related maculopathy: the Beaver Dam Eye Study.  Ophthalmology. 1993;100406- 414Google ScholarCrossref
21.
Vingerling  JRDielemans  IBots  MLHofman  AGrobbee  DEde Jong  PT Age-related macular degeneration is associated with atherosclerosis: the Rotterdam Study.  Am J Epidemiol. 1995;142404- 409Google Scholar
22.
Klein  RKlein  BELinton  KLDeMets  DL The Beaver Dam Eye Study: the relation of age-related maculopathy to smoking.  Am J Epidemiol. 1993;137190- 200Google Scholar
23.
Christen  WGGlynn  RJManson  JEAjani  UABuring  JE A prospective study of cigarette smoking and risk of age-related macular degeneration in men.  JAMA. 1996;2761147- 1151Google ScholarCrossref
24.
Macular Photocoagulation Study Group, Risk factors for choroidal neovascularization in the second eye of patients with juxtafoveal or subfoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration.  Arch Ophthalmol. 1997;115741- 747Google ScholarCrossref
25.
Sanders  TAHaines  APWormald  RWright  LAObeid  O Essential fatty acids, plasma cholesterol, and fat-soluble vitamins in subjects with age-related maculopathy and matched control subjects.  Am J Clin Nutr. 1993;57428- 433Google Scholar
26.
Seddon  JMAjani  UASperduto  RD  et al. for the Eye Disease Case-Control Study Group, Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration.  JAMA. 1994;2721413- 1420Google ScholarCrossref
27.
Ritter  LLKlein  RKlein  BEMares-Perlman  JAJensen  SC Alcohol use and age-related maculopathy in the Beaver Dam Eye Study.  Am J Ophthalmol. 1995;120190- 196Google Scholar
28.
Smith  WMitchell  P Alcohol intake and age-related maculopathy.  Am J Ophthalmol. 1996;122743- 745Google Scholar
29.
Ajani  UWillett  WMiller  D  et al.  Alcohol consumption and neovascular age-related macular degeneration [abstract].  Am J Epidemiol. 1993;138646Google Scholar
30.
Pawlosky  RJSalem  N  Jr Ethanol exposure causes a decrease in docosahexaenoic acid and an increase in docosapentaenoic acid in feline brains and retinas.  Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;611284- 1289Google Scholar
31.
Stryker  WSKaplan  LAStein  EAStampfer  MJSober  AWillett  WC The relation of diet, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption to plasma beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol levels.  Am J Epidemiol. 1988;127283- 296Google Scholar
32.
Forman  MRBeecher  GRLanza  E  et al.  Effect of alcohol consumption on plasma carotenoid concentrations in premenopausal women: a controlled dietary study.  Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62131- 135Google Scholar
33.
Rothman  KJ Modern Epidemiology.  Boston, Mass Little Brown & Co1986;87
34.
Copeland  KTCheckoway  HMcMichael  AJHolbrook  RH Bias due to misclassification in the estimation of relative risk.  Am J Epidemiol. 1977;105488- 495Google Scholar
35.
Hennekens  CHBuring  JE Epidemiology in Medicine.  Boston, Mass Little Brown & Co1987;
36.
Stampfer  MJColditz  GAWillett  WCSpeizer  FEHennekens  CH A prospective study of moderate alcohol consumption and the risk of coronary disease and stroke in women.  N Engl J Med. 1988;319267- 273Google ScholarCrossref
37.
Rimm  EBGiovannucci  ELWillett  WC  et al.  Prospective study of alcohol consumption and risk of coronary disease in men.  Lancet. 1991;338464- 468Google ScholarCrossref
Epidemiology and Biostatistics
May 2000

Prospective Study of Alcohol Consumption and the Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Author Affiliations

From the Departments of Nutrition (Drs Cho, Willett, Stampfer, and Rimm), Epidemiology (Drs Hankinson, Willett, Stampfer, Spiegelman, Rimm, and Seddon), and Biostatistics (Dr Spiegelman), Harvard School of Public Health, and the Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine (Dr Cho), Brigham and Women's Hospital (Drs Hankinson, Willett, Stampfer, Speizer, and Rimm), and the Epidemiology Unit, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary (Dr Seddon), Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass.

Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118(5):681-688. doi:10.1001/archopht.118.5.681
Abstract

Objective  To describe the relationship between alcohol consumption and the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

Methods  We conducted a prospective study among female nurses between 1980 and 1994 and among male health professionals between 1986 and 1994. We included 32,764 women and 29,488 men who were 50 years or older, without a diagnosis of AMD or cancer at baseline, and added additional subjects to the analysis as they reached 50 years of age. Their alcohol intake was assessed at baseline and updated during follow-up evaluations using a validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. After separate analyses for women and men, pooled estimates of the relationship of alcohol to the risk of AMD were calculated.

Results  Age-related macular degeneration associated with a visual acuity loss of 20/30 or worse, including the early and dry and wet types, was diagnosed in 298 women (from 697,498 person-years of follow-up) and 153 men (229,180 person-years) by 1994, the end of follow-up. After controlling for age, smoking, and other risk factors, the pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for AMD compared with nondrinkers were 1.0 (0.7-1.2) for drinkers who consumed 0.1 to 4.9 g/d of alcohol; 0.9 (0.6-1.4) for 5 to 14.9 g/d; 1.1 (0.7-1.7) for 15 to 29.9 g/d; and 1.3 (0.9-1.8) for 30 g/d or more. Among women, there was a suggestion of a modest increased risk of the disease in drinkers who consumed 30 g/d or more (RR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.4); this was limited to an increased risk of the early and dry form (RR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-3.4). No specific type of alcohol provided protection against AMD.

Conclusion  This prospective study does not support an inverse relationship between moderate alcohol consumption and risk of AMD.

×