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Article
May 1940

ROSACEA KERATITIS AND CONDITIONS WITH VASCULARIZATION OF CORNEA TREATED WITH RIBOFLAVIN

Author Affiliations

CLEVELAND
From the Western Reserve University School of Medicine and the University Hospitals of Cleveland, Department of Surgery, Ophthalmologic Service.

Arch Ophthalmol. 1940;23(5):899-907. doi:10.1001/archopht.1940.00860131019001
Abstract

In a previous communication observations on the corneas of rats whose diet was deficient in riboflavin (vitamin B2) were recorded. At that time we said : "From our experience with the diet deficient in riboflavin, the most consistent ocular change was the appearance of corneal vascularization. . . . After riboflavin was added, the most uniform effect was remission of vascularization."1 While the article was in press, a similar opinion was expressed by Bessey and Wolbach :2 "Vascularization of the cornea is an early and constant phenomenon in albino rats in riboflavin deficiency. It precedes all other demonstrable lesions of the deficiency." Conspicuous cutaneous features are intense flushing of the skin and alopecia.

A chemical and pharmacologic description of riboflavin follows:

Riboflavin is the name which was proposed by the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry of the American Medical Association3 for the compound 6,7-dimethyl-9(d,1'-ribityl)-isoalloxazin, which has the structure shown in figure

References
1.
Eckardt, R. E., and Johnson, L. V.:  Nutritional Cataract and Relation of Galactose to Appearance of Senile Suture Line in Rats ,  Arch. Ophth. 21:315 ( (Feb.) ) 1939.Crossref
2.
Bessey, O. A., and Wolbach, S. B.:  Vascularization of the Cornea of the Rat in Riboflavin Deficiency, with a Note on Corneal Vascularization in Vitamin A Deficiency ,  J. Exper. Med. 69:1 ( (Jan.) ) 1939.Crossref
3.
Riboflavin, the Accepted Name for Vitamin B2,  Report of the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry ,  J. A. M. A. 108:1340 ( (April 17) ) 1937.
4.
Kuhn, R.; Rudy, H., and Wagner-Jauregg, T.:  Ueber Lactoflavin (Vitamin B2) ,  Ber. d. deutsch. chem. Gesellsch. 66:1950 ( (Dec.) ) 1933.Crossref
5.
Karrer, P.; Salomon, H., and Schopp, K.:  Isolierung des Hepaflavins ,  Helvet. chim. acta 17:419 ( (March) ) 1934.Crossref
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Kuhn, R.; György, P., and Wagner-Jauregg, T.:  Ueber Ovoflavin, den Farbstoff des Eiklars ,  Ber. d. deutsch. chem. Geseilsch. 66:576 ( (April) ) 1933.Crossref
7.
György, P.; Kuhn, R., and Wagner-Jauregg, T.:  Das Vitamin B2 ,  Naturwissenschaften 21:560, 1933.Crossref
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Warburg, O., and Christian, W.:  Ueber ein neues Oxydationsferment und sein Absorptionsspektrum ,  Biochem. Ztschr. 254:438 ( (Oct.) ) 1932
9.
 Ueber das neue Oxydationsferment ,  Naturwissenschaften 20:980, 1932.Crossref
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Theorell, H.:  Reindarstellung (Kristallisation) des gelben Atmungsferment und die reversible Spaltung desselben ,  Biochem. Ztschr. 272:155 ( (July) ) 1934
11.
 Ueber die Wirkungsgruppe des gelben Ferments , Theorell Biochem. Ztschr. 275:37 ( (Dec.) ) 1934
12.
 Reindarstellung der Wirkungsgruppe des gelben Ferments , Theorell Biochem. Ztschr. 275:344 ( (Jan.) ) 1935.
13.
Kuhn, R.; Rudy, H., and Weygand, F.:  Ueber die Bildung eines künstlichen Ferments aus 6,7-Dimethyl-9-1-Araboflavin-5'-Phosphorsaüre ,  Ber. d. deutsch. chem. Gesellsch. 69:2034 ( (Sept.) ) 1936.Crossref
14.
Kuhn, R., and Rudy, H.:  Katalytische Wirkung der Lactoflavin -5'- Phosphosäure; Synthese des gelben Ferments ,  Ber. d. deutsch. chem. Gesellsch. 69: 1974 ( (Aug.) ) 1936.Crossref
15.
Corran, H. S., and Green, D. E.:  Isolation of a Flavin-Protein Compound from Milk ,  Nature, London (supp.) 142:149 ( (July 23) ) 1938.Crossref
16.
Straub, F. B.:  Flavo-Protein of the Heart Muscle Tissue ,  Nature, London 143:76 ( (Jan. 14) ) 1939.Crossref
17.
Methylthionine chloride (methylene blue), riboflavin phosphoric acid ester and cytochrome c.
18.
Rudy, H.:  Enzymatische Phosphorylierung des Lactoflavins ,  Naturwissenschaften 23:286 ( (May 3) ) 1935.Crossref
19.
Hogan, A. G.:  Riboflavin: Physiology and Pathology ,  J. A. M. A. 110: 1188 ( (April 9) ) 1938.Crossref
20.
All riboflavin was supplied by the Biochemicals Division of the S. M. A. Corporation. For practical purposes, riboflavin should be administered in adequate doses. The widely used so-called A-B-D-G pills and polytaxin both appear to us to contain too small amounts of riboflavin to be effective. In this connection one should bear in mind that 1 quart (0.9 liter) of milk contains almost 1,000 micrograms (1 mg.) of riboflavin, whereas the common A-B-D-G pills contain about 50 micrograms (3 micrograms of riboflavin = 1 Sherman-Bourquin unit of vitamin G [B2]).
21.
György, P.:  Pediculosis in Rats Kept on a Riboflavin-Deficient Diet ,  Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 38:383, 1938.
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