Six-Year Progression of Retinopathy and Associated Risk Factors in African American Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: The New Jersey 725 | Hypertension | JAMA Ophthalmology | JAMA Network
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Epidemiology
September 2006

Six-Year Progression of Retinopathy and Associated Risk Factors in African American Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: The New Jersey 725

Author Affiliations
 

LESLIEHYMANPhDAuthor Affiliation: Institute of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Medicine and Dentistry, New Jersey Medical School, Newark (Dr Roy); and Department of Mathematics, Kean University, Union, NJ (Dr Affouf).

Arch Ophthalmol. 2006;124(9):1297-1306. doi:10.1001/archopht.124.9.1297
Abstract

Objective  To report the 6-year progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and associated risk factors among African American patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus.

Methods  Participants from the New Jersey 725 included 483 African American patients with type 1 diabetes who underwent reexamination as part of a 6-year follow-up. Evaluations included a structured clinical interview, ocular examination, 7 stereoscopic fundus photographs, and blood pressure measurements. Severity of DR was determined via masked grading of fundus photographs. Biological evaluation included blood and urine assays.

Results  During the 6-year period, 56.1% of patients at risk showed progression of DR; 15.0% showed progression to proliferative DR; and 15.9% developed macular edema. A baseline high glycosylated hemoglobin level and systemic hypertension were significant risk factors for progression of DR, progression to proliferative DR, and incidence of macular edema. Progression to proliferative DR was significantly associated with baseline older age, renal disease, and severity of DR. The incidence of macular edema was significantly associated with baseline older age, low socioeconomic status, severity of DR, and total serum cholesterol level.

Conclusions  Six-year progression of DR is high in African American patients with type 1 diabetes. Improving glycemic and blood pressure control may reduce the ocular morbidity of diabetes in African Americans.

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