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April 11, 2011, Vol 129, No. 4, Pages 395-526 | Infectious Disease

Editorial

From Robert Koch to Bradford Hill: Chronic Infection and the Origins of Ocular Adnexal Cancers

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Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(4):498-500. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.53

Determining the Role for Antibiotics in the Prevention of Endophthalmitis After Cataract Surgery

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Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(4):501-502. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.50
Research Letter

Detection of Progressive Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy Using Automated Alternation Flicker With Stereophotography

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Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(4):512-526. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2010.310

Slow Resolution of Clinically Active Trachoma Following Successful Mass Antibiotic Treatments

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Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(4):512-526. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.46

Actinomyces Infectious Crystalline Keratopathy

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Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(4):512-526. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.55

Rosai-Dorfman Disease Simulating Nodular Scleritis and Panuveitis

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Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(4):512-526. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.56

Surgeon's Corner

Touchless Levitation Technique for Management of Posteriorly Dislocated Silicone Intraocular Lenses or Implants

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Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(4):512-526. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.58

Endogenous Endophthalmitis With Brain Abscesses Caused by Streptococcus constellatus

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Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(4):512-526. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.59

Intraocular Invasion by Microsporidial Spores in a Case of Stromal Keratitis

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Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(4):512-526. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.61

Granulomatous Choroiditis in Wegener Granulomatosis

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Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(4):512-526. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.62
Ophthalmological Numismatics

Antonio Scarpa

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Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(4):428. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.47
Clinical Sciences

Topical Fluoroquinolone Use as a Risk Factor for In Vitro Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Ocular Cultures

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Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(4):399-402. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.45

Necrotizing and Nonnecrotizing Variants of Herpetic Uveitis With Posterior Segment Involvement

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Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(4):403-408. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2010.313
ObjectiveTo describe the clinical characteristics and prognosis of diverse variants of herpetic uveitis with posterior segment involvement.Methods/DesignRetrospective observational study of clinical, imaging, and laboratory data.ResultsTwenty-five patients were classified as having typical acute retinal necrosis (ARN) and 13 patients as not having ARN (non-ARN). Age at symptom onset, sex, bilateral involvement, and prevalence of viral species were not significantly different between patients in the ARN and non-ARN groups. All patients in the ARN group had necrotic retinal lesions that progressed quickly, whereas only 4 of 13 patients (31%) in the non-ARN group (P < .001) had necrotic retinal lesions that progressed slowly. Necrotizing variants were noted in 29 of 38 patients (76%), including 4 patients with slowly progressing lesions. Nine remaining patients in the non-ARN group had nonnecrotizing posterior uveitis without retinal lesions; their cases were characterized by vitritis, vasculitis, and/or papillitis, or as panuveitis without any distinct features (5 patients [38.5%]). At 6 months' follow-up, visual acuity of less than 0.1 developed in 13 of 25 patients (52%) in the ARN group and in 4 of 13 patients (31%) in the non-ARN group (P = .30).ConclusionsHerpes simplex and varicella zoster viruses can cause a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from severe ARN to slow-progressing necrotizing and nonnecrotizing types of inflammation. The non-ARN variants are currently underdiagnosed. Patients with these variants could potentially benefit from earlier recognition and treatment.

Clinical Features and Diagnostic Evaluation of Biopsy-Proven Ocular Sarcoidosis

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Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(4):409-413. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.52
Laboratory Sciences

Suppression of Inflammatory Corneal Lymphangiogenesis by Application of Topical Corticosteroids

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Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(4):445-452. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.42

Association of Hemopexin in Tear Film and Conjunctival Macrophages With Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

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Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(4):453-461. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.41

Effects of Age and Dysfunction on Human Meibomian Glands

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Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(4):462-469. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.69
Epidemiology

Healthy Lifestyles Related to Subsequent Prevalence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

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Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(4):470-480. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2010.314
ObjectiveTo investigate the relationships between lifestyle behaviors of diet, smoking, and physical activity and the subsequent prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).MethodsThe population included 1313 participants (aged 55-74 years) in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study, an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Scores on a modified 2005 Healthy Eating Index were assigned using responses to a food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (1994-1998). Physical activity and lifetime smoking history were queried. An average of 6 years later, stereoscopic fundus photographs were taken to assess the presence and severity of AMD; it was present in 202 women, 94% of whom had early AMD, the primary outcome.ResultsIn multivariate models, women whose diets scored in the highest quintile compared with the lowest quintile on the modified 2005 Healthy Eating Index had 46% lower odds for early AMD. Women in the highest quintile compared with those in the lowest quintile for physical activity (in metabolic energy task hours per week) had 54% lower odds for early AMD. Although smoking was not independently associated with AMD on its own, having a combination of 3 healthy behaviors (healthy diet, physical activity, and not smoking) was associated with 71% lower odds for AMD compared with having high-risk scores (P < .001).ConclusionModifying lifestyles might reduce risk for early AMD as much as 3-fold, lowering the risk for advanced AMD in a person's lifetime and the social and economic costs of AMD to society.

Vitamin D Status and Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Postmenopausal Women

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Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(4):481-489. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.48

Complete Blood Cell Count and Retinal Vessel Diameters

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Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(4):490-497. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.57
Archives Web Quiz Winner

Archives Web Quiz Winner Novemeber 2010

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Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(4):497. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.43
Special Article

Fred Loe, MD, and the History of Trachoma

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Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(4):503-508. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.64
Small Case Series

Treatment of Microsporidia Keratitis With Topical Voriconazole Monotherapy

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Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(4):509-510. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.54
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