Encephaloceles are the presence of meninges, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and/or brain extending beyond the cranial cavity through a bony defect in the skull. Formerly called brain fungus, an encephalocele commonly involves portions of brain tissue that have become necrotic after herniation. The term encephalocele encompasses meningocele (herniation of meninges and CSF), encephalomeningocele (herniation of brain and meninges), and hydroencephalomeningocele (brain, ventricles, and meninges).1 The incidence of congenital encephaloceles is estimated at 1:3000 to 10,000 live births, favoring females 2.3:1.1 Occipital encephaloceles are most common, with cranial base lesions accounting for only 5% of encephaloceles. The most common cranial base encephaloceles involve the temporal bone and middle fossa.2 Rarely, temporal bone encephaloceles arise from the posterior cranial fossa.3
Imaging Quiz Case 1. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1998;124(11):1276. doi:10-1001/pubs.Arch Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.-ISSN-0886-4470-124-11-ori7399
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