Anson and Bast11 report that difficulties which confront the surgeon in employing any one of the several techniques calculated to mobilize an ankylosed stapes are the result of the following circumstances: the anatomic position and relations of the stapes; its extreme fragility, and its inability to heal, once it has been fractured; the power of the otic capsule to produce rapidly growing bone in the territory of the vestibular (oval) window. All portions of the stapes are fragile. The crura and base are always thin, the head is pitted, deeply excavated, or both. The base (footplate) is usually the weakest part of the ossicle. In many cases, the bone consists of a thin lamina on the tympanic aspect, i.e., toward the middle ear; cartilage, persisting from the fetal stage, completes the base on the vestibular surface.Anson and Bast12 report that the stapedial footplate is a thin,
PROCTOR B. Chronic Progressive Deafness: Summaries of the Bibliographic Material Available for 1958. Arch Otolaryngol. 1961;73(4):444–499. doi:10.1001/archotol.1961.00740020454013
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