In 1878, Kessel1 removed and mobilized the stapes as a treatment for otosclerotic hearing losses. Boucheron,2-3 in 1888, and Miot,4-5 in 1890, performed similar operations.
In 1952, Rosen6-7 rediscovered stapes mobilization, his technique being greatly modified afterward. From the first indirect attempts performed on the long process of the incus and on the stapes neck, the direct mobilization at the footplate was attained. Fowler,8 with his anterior crurotomy, tried to preserve the chain unity, keeping as a columella the posterior crus with part of the footplate. Goodhill,9-10 Derlacki,11 Scheer,12-13 and Myerson14 attempted by different techniques to loosen the stapes from the otosclerotic tissue that fixes it.
Many methods have been proposed for the total or partial liberation of the stapes footplate and many were effective when the ankylosing focus is of medium or small degree. But those cases where weak crura
MERCANDINO EC, TARASIDO JC. Artificial Stapes. Arch Otolaryngol. 1961;73(6):635–638. doi:10.1001/archotol.1961.00740020649002
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