The evolutionary development of stapes operations for otosclerosis began with the Miot-Rosen method of transcrural application of pressure to mobilize the stapes. Because less than 50% of ankylosed stapes could be mobilized by this method, and many of these were eventually refixed, the next development was the use of small chisels around the footplate to loosen it. The initial successes were greater, but refixations continued to be a problem as the otosclerotic bone grew across the chisel fracture line. The first stapes operation designed to bypass the otosclerotic lesion was the Basek-Fowler anterior crurotomy. This has been one of the most successful of stapes techniques. Next came the polyethylene tube strut from the incus to the fractured blue footplate. This method also gave excellent results, but both anterior crurotomy and the polyethylene tube strut could not be used when more than half of the footplate was involved by otosclerosis. To
SHAMBAUGH GE. By-Pass Surgical Techniques in Stapes Surgery. Arch Otolaryngol. 1962;76(6):542–543. doi:10.1001/archotol.1962.00740050556009
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