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Review
April 2018

Otolaryngology Resident Education and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Core Competencies: A Systematic Review

Author Affiliations
  • 1Department of Otolaryngology−Head and Neck Surgery, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
  • 2Department of Otolaryngology, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson
  • 3Department of Otolaryngology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City
  • 4Health Sciences Library, University of Arizona, Tucson
  • 5Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology−Head and Neck Surgery, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio
  • 6Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio
  • 7Department of Otolaryngology−Head and Neck Surgery, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2018;144(4):360-370. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2017.3163
Key Points

Question  What does the current literature report regarding the use of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies in otolaryngology residency training?

Findings  In this systematic review of 104 studies, nonclinical core competencies were reported fewer times than clinical core competencies. Multiple studies addressed more than 1 core competency, and 6 addressed all 6 core competencies.

Meaning  Increased emphasis is needed on nonclinical core competencies, including professionalism, interpersonal and communication skills, and systems-based practices in otolaryngology residency training curriculum.

Abstract

Importance  To date, there have been no reports in the current literature regarding the use of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies in otolaryngology residency training. An evaluation may help educators address these core competencies in the training curriculum.

Objectives  To examine the quantity and nature of otolaryngology residency training literature through a systematic review and to evaluate whether this literature aligns with the 6 core competencies.

Evidence Review  A medical librarian assisted in a search of all indexed years of the PubMed, Embase, Education Resources Information Center (via EBSCOhost), Cochrane Library (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Methodology Register), Thomson Reuters Web of Science (Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index Expanded, Conference Proceedings Citation Index–Science, and Conference Proceedings Citation Index–Social Science and Humanities), Elsevier Scopus, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases to identify relevant English-language studies. Included studies contained original human data and focused on otolaryngology resident education. Data regarding study design, setting, and ACGME core competencies addressed were extracted from each article. Initial searches were performed on May 20, 2015, and updated on October 4, 2016.

Findings  In this systematic review of 104 unique studies, interpersonal communication skills were reported 15 times; medical knowledge, 48 times; patient care, 44 times; practice-based learning and improvement, 31 times; professionalism, 15 times; and systems-based practices, 10 times. Multiple studies addressed more than 1 core competency at once, and 6 addressed all 6 core competencies.

Conclusions and Relevance  Increased emphasis on nonclinical core competencies is needed, including professionalism, interpersonal and communication skills, and systems-based practices in the otolaryngology residency training curriculum. A formal curriculum addressing nonclinical core competencies should be integrated into otolaryngology residency training.

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