Is there a difference in major infections after cochlear implantation among patients treated with prolonged antibiotic treatment or treated with only single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis?
Among 1180 patients in this cohort study, postoperative cochlear implant infection was rare, was less common among those who received prolonged antibiotic treatment vs antibiotic prophylaxis, and was less likely to occur in adults than in children.
Prolonged antibiotic treatment is associated with a reduction in postoperative cochlear implant infection risk compared with antibiotic prophylaxis.
Infection after cochlear implantation is a rare but serious event that can lead to meningitis. There is no consensus on prevention of infection in these patients, and each center applies its own strategy.
To describe the rates of major surgical site infection for patients undergoing cochlear implantation who receive prolonged antibiotic treatment compared with those who receive a single perioperative dose of antibiotic prophylaxis.
Design, Setting, and Participants
Retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent cochlear implantation between January 1, 2011, and July 8, 2015, with a postoperative follow-up of 1 to 3 years. In this multicenter study at 8 French university centers, 1180 patients (509 children and 671 adults) who underwent cochlear implantation during this period were included.
Prolonged antibiotic treatment vs single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis.
Main Outcomes and Measures
Major infection and explantation.
Among 1180 patients (509 children [51.7% female] with a mean [SD] age of 4.6 [3.8] years and 671 adults [54.9% female] with a mean [SD] age of 54.8 [17.0] years), 12 patients (1.0%) developed a major infection, with 4 infections occurring in the prolonged antibiotic treatment group and 8 infections occurring in the antibiotic prophylaxis group (odds ratio, 2.45; 95% CI, 0.73-8.17). Children (9 of 509 [1.8%]) were more likely to develop infection than adults (3 of 671 [0.4%]). Among children, 4 infections occurred in the prolonged antibiotic group (n = 344), and 5 infections occurred in the antibiotic prophylaxis group (n = 158) (odds ratio, 2.78; 95% CI, 0.74-10.49). Among adults, 3 infections occurred in the antibiotic prophylaxis group (n = 365), whereas no infections occurred in the prolonged antibiotic treatment group (n = 290).
Conclusions and Relevance
After cochlear implantation, infection was rare, was less common among those who received prolonged antibiotic treatment, and was less likely to occur in adults than in children.
Sayed-Hassan A, Hermann R, Chidiac F, et al. Association of the Duration of Antibiotic Therapy With Major Surgical Site Infection in Cochlear Implantation. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2019;145(1):14–20. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2018.1998
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