Theoretical principles underpinning the P value and hypothesis testing were conceived by Fisher (P value)1 and Neyman and Pearson (null hypothesis testing)2 in the 1920s and 1930s. The originators of these concepts had no idea that their probabilistic theories would become the reference standard for scientific discovery. In fact, these same pioneers argued that “no test based upon the theory of probability can by itself provide any valuable evidence of the truth or falsehood of that hypothesis.”2(291) Nonetheless, P values and the null hypothesis testing paradigm and have become ubiquitously associated with scientific discovery without careful consideration of what they mean.
Kallogjeri D, Francis DO, Piccirillo JF. Use of Confidence Intervals to Improve the Quality of Research Results Reporting and Interpretation. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2019;145(6):491–493. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2019.0793
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