The production of speech has been conceived as involving the employment of certain areas and certain kinds of muscular action. The first and basal activity is that of the chest; the second, that of opening and closing of the vocal cords; third, the articulative movements of the organs in the mouth, and the fourth, the movements of the larynx as a whole and of its adjacent structures. The terms movements of the chest, intrinsic laryngeal movements, articulative movements and extrinsic laryngeal movements have been employed. Each of these four departments of muscular action has, for the most part, been conceived as a physiologic entity, although cooperating for a common purpose. Action of the chest to produce speech is well understood; the laryngoscope has made clear the meaning of all ordinary gross movements within the larynx, and most of the action of the organs in the mouth can be
KENYON EL. RELATION OF ORAL ARTICULATIVE MOVEMENTS OF SPEECH AND OF EXTRINSIC LARYNGEAL MUSCULATURE IN GENERAL TO FUNCTION OF VOCAL CORD. Arch Otolaryngol. 1927;5(6):481–501. doi:10.1001/archotol.1927.00600010511002
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