The increasing frequency of the employment of laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy and esophagoscopy as aids in diagnosis and treatment of disease brings up the question, By whom may these procedures be carried out? In briefly discussing the technic of bronchoscopy and esophagoscopy, Chevalier Jackson1 states that when skilfully introduced, there is no danger from the mere presence of a bronchoscope in the laryngotracheobronchial airway, nor of an esophagoscope in the esophagus and stomach. The introduction of the instruments, which are in principle specula, is highly technical. Any physician or surgeon can be taught to introduce them safely, but this cannot be learned by looking on at a clinic. Introduction of the bronchoscope, and especially of the esophagoscope, by the untaught may inflict fatal trauma; serious injury may result from improper manipulation of a foreign body, especially a pointed object.
Promptness and precision with coordinated action by a trained