A number of authors, particularly the German, have studied the articulation of the malleus and incus, and of the incus and stapes. They have been interested chiefly from the physiologic standpoint, that is, to determine whether the individual ossicles are flexible or whether the connections between them are such that they are fixed. The different authors vary in their descriptions of the articulation of the auditory ossicles. Also, in studying the works on otology in which the various pathologic processes of the middle ear are described, one finds little mention of the ossicles, so that one is apt to get the impression that there were no pathologic changes. However, of the pathologic conditions, ankylosis is practically the only one that has been considered.
I have had the opportunity to study numerous series of normal and pathologic microscopic sections of the ear in Professor Alexander's laboratory in Vienna, with an idea
DRUSS JG. THE HISTOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY OF THE ARTICULATION OF THE AUDITORY OSSICLES. Arch Otolaryngol. 1928;8(1):56–65. doi:10.1001/archotol.1928.00620020064008
Otolaryngology in JAMA: Read the Latest
Customize your JAMA Network experience by selecting one or more topics from the list below.