Malformations of the esophagus are encountered so rarely in the practice of most physicians that reporting each case should be encouraged. A physician with a large practice, both private and institutional, may pass a lifetime without seeing a case of this sort. Many cases, in fact, are overlooked because of their similarity to other conditions.
Cautley1 has given the following satisfactory classification of the malformations:
(1) Complete absence, usually associated with gross malformation as in monsters.
(2) Double esophagus, with reunion at the lower end (rare)
(3) Diverticula or pouches, pharyngeal rather than esophageal, situated posteriorly at the junction of the pharynx and esophagus.
(5) Tracheo-esophageal fistula, without any other abnormality (rare).
(6) Congenital dilatation, usually just above the diaphragm (quite rare).
(7) Atresia without fistulous communication with the trachea a malformation of various types and rather common.
(8) Atresia with the lower end of
SIMPSON WL. CONGENITAL ATRESIA OF THE ESOPHAGUS WITH TRACHEO-ESOPHAGEA FISTUA. Arch Otolaryngol. 1929;9(3):267–270. doi:10.1001/archotol.1929.00620030285006
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