A simple and yet comprehensive classification of atresia of the posterior choanae may be made on the basis of the histology and embryology of the atresia, as follows:
(a) Lack of rupture of the primitive bucconasal membrane.
(b) Secondary epithelial overgrowths, or epithelial plugs.
(a) Bone formation in membranous atresia.
(b) Anomalies of the internal pterygoid plate of the sphenoid bone.
Although it is conceivable that osseous atresia likewise may be due to anomalies of the vomer or posterior septum, I have not encountered or found described such a condition and therefore have not included it in the classification.
Membranous atresia, according to Schaeffer,1 occurs as follows:
"In the formation of the primitive choanae the dorsal growth or extension of the blind pouch-like primitive nasal fossae meets the ectoderm of the oral fossae. One now finds in these positions the bucconasal membrane composed of two
STINSON WD. OSSEOUS ATRESIA OF THE POSTERIOR CHOANAE. Arch Otolaryngol. 1932;15(1):101–103. doi:10.1001/archotol.1932.03570030116005
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