The production of vocal sounds or phonation depends on the perfect working of all parts of the speaking machine as one might call the associated activities of the thorax, trachea, pharynx, oral and nasal cavities, the jaws, teeth, roof of the mouth, and lips. These tissues are helped by the actions of the diaphragm with the pharngeal, palatile, lingual, labial, buccinator, hyoid and masseter muscles, as well as the vocal cords.
Speech sounds therefore may be said to be produced by the passage of expired air through an elastic tube composed of various tissues, no single structure or muscle serving speech alone. Complete closure of every passage to the nasal chambers is necessary for perfect utterance of many vocal sounds. In other words, the quality, timbre or type of sounds produced depends on the ability of the tongue and velum to stop the air column as needed. The production of
LYONS DC. RELATIONSHIP OF ORAL AND PHARYNGEAL ABNORMALITIES TO SPEECH. Arch Otolaryngol. 1932;15(5):734–738. doi:10.1001/archotol.1932.03570030755007
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