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The inclusion of the tracheobronchial tree and esophagus in the specialty of laryngology dates back thirty years. While the exploration of the former is due entirely to the genius of Gustav Killian and is considered as new territory, the work on the latter is principally due to the efforts of von Mikulicz, although such pioneer laryngologists as Semeleder, Stoerk and others have also contributed a great deal to the subject.
Tracheobronchology must be looked on as a direct continuation of laryngology and is indispensable to the laryngologist. The laryngologist's relation to the esophagus, however, is the result of manifold connections in the pathology of the contiguous food and air passages, which must be considered in the differential diagnosis of conditions in both organs.
Peroral endoscopy claims a complicated technical apparatus and a careful methodical education.
Because the opportunity of application and practice of endoscopic methods is relatively rare and,
MILLER JW. EXTRACTION OF FOREIGN BODIES FROM THE FOOD AND AIR PASSAGES BY DIRECT METHODS. Arch Otolaryngol. 1932;16(2):188–196. doi:10.1001/archotol.1932.00630040197005
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