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The ethmoidal cells are rarely confined to the ethmoid bone, but the ostia of the ethmoidal cells are constantly located in the true ethmoidal field, regardless of the degree of expansion of the cells into the neighboring bones.
In the process of development, the ethmoidal cells frequently expand into the maxilla, the frontal and the sphenoid bones, and in these positions they variously encroach on the maxillary, frontal and sphenoidal sinuses. It is very common for posterior ethmoidal cells to develop dorsalward and expand into the body of the sphenoid bone. The sphenoidal sinuses in these cases are reduced in size, and their usual relationships to the optic nerve superolaterally, the internal carotid artery and the other structures of the cavernous sinus laterally, and the pituitary fossa cephalad are taken up by the posterior ethmoidal cell or cells. When these extensions of posterior ethmoidal cells occur, they always
RIGGLE PP. ETHMOSPHENOIDAL CELLS WITH AGENESIS OF THE SPHENOIDAL SINUS. Arch Otolaryngol. 1932;16(4):532–537. doi:10.1001/archotol.1932.00630040544007
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