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July 1935


Arch Otolaryngol. 1935;22(1):22-43. doi:10.1001/archotol.1935.00640030033003

In 1847, Krämer employed the name "papilloma" for cauliflower-like tumors of the mucous membrane. This term characterized the gross appearance of such growths without defining any of their histologic features. Following this usage all pedunculated or raspberry-like growths were classified as papillomas. It soon became apparent that such a classification was untenable. In 1883, Hopmann, using the epithelial lining of these tumors as a criterion, attempted to subdivide them into hard and soft papillomas. Tumors covered with cylindric epithelium were designated by him as soft; those with stratified squamous epithelium he termed hard. However, subsequent histologic studies soon revealed the fallacy of such a subdivision. It was found that the texture of the tumor was dependent on both the character of the stroma and the overlying epithelium. Contrary to Hopmann's classification, there were reported hard tumors with cylindric epithelium and soft tumors with pavement epithelium. In addition, no

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