The primary investigations of Carrol Birch,1 of Chicago, in 1931 led to the use of ovarian extract in the treatment of hemophilia. Birch reasoned that since the disease occurs only in the male there is something lacking in the male organism which is present in the transmitting female which prevents the development of clinical manifestations of the disease. Working on this theory, she has treated hemophilia with ovarian extract with excellent results, and the use of this in the hands of many others since that time has proved the value of her work.
It was also shown that the addition of ovarian substance lowers the coagulation time of blood from a hemophiliac in vitro.
At the suggestion of A. J. Carlson, Birch demonstrated that when the urine from normal men is concentrated and injected in sufficient quantities into castrated female rats an estrus cycle is produced. The urine
C. J. HEINBERG. TREATMENT OF HEMORRHAGE IN NONHEMOPHILIC PATIENTS WITH AN ESTROGENIC SUBSTANCE. Arch Otolaryngol. 1936;24(6):758–761. doi:10.1001/archotol.1936.00640050773008