In the course of a comprehensive study of the anatomy of the human ear, it was early realized that more precise information was needed on the development and the adult form and structure of the stapes. Not until such information became available could pathologic structure of the stapes be certainly distinguished from normal or the extent of alteration be determined. Of almost equal importance is information concerning the neighboring area—the vestibular window, fissular tracts and islands of osseous tissue of types peculiar to the temporal bone. The present paper represents the initial phase of a study of the stapedial area and includes six developmental stages between the embryo of 22.8 and that of 183 mm. crown-rump length; subsequent papers will carry the study through the stages of infant, child and adult (to the age of 70).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
For this investigation reconstructions of the stapes, together with the surrounding
ANSON BJ, KARABIN JE, MARTIN J. STAPES, FISSULA ANTE FENESTRAM AND ASSOCIATED STRUCTURES IN MANI. FROM THE EMBRYO OF SEVEN WEEKS TO THAT OF TWENTY-ONE WEEKS. Arch Otolaryngol. 1938;28(5):676–697. doi:10.1001/archotol.1938.00650040688002
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