Any evidence which helps to clarify the etiology of primary atrophic rhinitis is deserving of record. Since the term "atrophic rhinitis" is still loosely used by many physicians, it is to be emphasized that there are two clinical types of the condition:1 (1) the primary type, known as atrophic fetid rhinitis, or ozena, and (2) the secondary type, which follows a chronic suppurative infection of the paranasal sinuses. Only primary atrophic rhinitis, or ozena, is considered in this paper.
Of the numerous theories evolved in the past, few have survived the test of time. Every one advanced has been proved and disproved. Ozena is to the rhinologist what otosclerosis is to the otologist—both conditions are chronic, both are progressive, both consist of circumscribed pathologic changes, neither gives systemic discomfort and both produce social and economic problems.
Of historical interest are the theories thus far proposed regarding the causes of ozena.
FOX N, DINOLT R, MORWITZ SM. ATROPHIC RHINITIS WITH OZENA Etiologic Factors. Arch Otolaryngol. 1941;33(6):1033–1037. doi:10.1001/archotol.1941.00660031044012
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