Three oustanding requirements in peroral endoscopic procedures are of extreme importance: safety, efficiency and comfort. Adequate anesthesia will contribute substantially to the fulfilment of these. Jackson and McReynolds1 in a survey of the experiences and opinions of peroral endoscopists found considerable difference of opinion regarding what constitutes the most desirable plan of anesthesia for these procedures. Morphine, without or with atropine, long regarded as the standard agent of premedication, still holds first place. Next to morphine in popularity are barbiturates. A few use scopolamine with morphine. Local anesthesia still is employed by the majority in preference to general anesthesia. For direct laryngoscopic procedures the anesthetic is either applied with a swab to the piriform sinuses or administered in some form of spray or by instillation or both. A few use a brush for application.
For bronchoscopic work the majority use the same technic in the induction of anesthesia as for
CLERF LH. ANESTHESIA. Arch Otolaryngol. 1941;33(6):1042–1077. doi:10.1001/archotol.1941.00660031053015
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