A simple accurate method for the quantitative study of nasal patency has long been desired by clinicians and rhinologic research workers. The idea of breathing through the nasal passages directly onto a previously cooled mirror or metal surface was introduced in 1889 by Zwaardemaker.1 He later reported the use of his metal mirror as an aid in the diagnosis of nasal obstruction. In 1895 Kayser,2 after using the same technic, published his work on "the exact measurement of the nasal air passages." These measurements were derived from the size and shape taken by the moisture deposited on the metal mirror. In 1904 Glatzel3 modified the mirror by adding two curved lines to aid in determining the degree of nasal patency. In 1915 Cocks4 added some straight lines to this modified mirror and attempted to measure more accurately nasal conditions before and after operations by the conformity of the moisture deposits
SILCOX LE. RHINITIS: A NASOGRAPHIC STUDY: PRELIMINARY REPORT. Arch Otolaryngol. 1941;34(1):33–46. doi:10.1001/archotol.1941.00660040043005
Monkeypox Resource Center
Customize your JAMA Network experience by selecting one or more topics from the list below.