The consensus is that ozena is a symptom of atrophic rhinitis. Although the two conditions are similar in many respects, yet ozena has a definite characteristic odor and may be present without marked atrophy of the nasal structures. The histories of these diseases are punctuated by a variety of therapies, each of which is based on some reasonable hypothesis. Every subsequent approach to treatment is at first proclaimed with hopeful promises, but so far the final analysis has resulted, for the most part, in a bitter disappointment.
It is the purpose of this paper to remind investigators that atrophic rhinitis and ozena usually will improve at first with any type of therapy that is employed. It is therefore absolutely important to use a control along with the medication in such a fashion that the human equation is eliminated. By this I mean that the containers should have no characteristic markings
FITZHUGH WM. ATROPHIC RHINITIS AND OZENA. Arch Otolaryngol. 1945;42(5):404–406. doi:10.1001/archotol.1945.00680040524010
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