THE CONDUCTION SYSTEM
PRACTICALLY all significant sounds are made by animals or objects separated from the listener by space containing air and are therefore air conducted. Most, if not all, the air-conducted sounds are conveyed to the listener through the external auditory meatus. The auricle and external canal collect sound vibrations from the air, and the middle ear modifies and transmits these vibrations to the internal ear.The sound vibrations which have been collected and condensed in the external canal cause the tympanic membrane to vibrate, and its vibrations in turn are transmitted through the auditory ossicles to the inner ear. The eustachian tube, the tensor tympani muscle and the stapedius muscle are accessories which help to focus and aid in the transmission of sound vibrations through the middle ear. The vibrations passing through the tympanic membrane and the auditory ossicles are reduced considerably in amplitude but are correspondingly increased
MACDONALD PG. FUNCTIONING OF THE AIR CELL SYSTEM OF THE MASTOID PROCESS IN AUDITION. Arch Otolaryngol. 1949;49(5):447–462. doi:10.1001/archotol.1949.03760110003001
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