EXPERIMENTAL production of forced circling movements is well known, these movements having been elicited by means of anatomic lesions in numerous areas of the central nervous system. Muskens1 produced such lesions by sectioning fibers of the posterior longitudinal fasciculus. Kennard and Ectors2 reported forced circular movements after ablating area 8 of one frontal lobe. Mussen,3 on the other hand, obtained this effect by stimulating the red nucleus. Chemical alteration also may evoke compulsive behavior. Goldin and associates4 noted circling movements with the use of nitrogen mustards. Hill and associates5 observed similar behavioral changes in rats placed on diets deficient in manganese. However, the production of compulsory turning by a biochemical lesion was first observed by Freedman and Himwich,6 who elicited this response, called the adversive syndrome, by the intracarotid injection of di-isopropyl fluorophosphate, a drug which destroys cholinesterase and permits the accumulation of acetylcholine.
SCHIFF M, ESMOND WG, HIMWICH HE. FORCED CIRCLING MOVEMENTS (ADVERSIVE SYNDROME): Correction with Dinenhydrinate ("Dramamine"). Arch Otolaryngol. 1950;51(5):672–677. doi:10.1001/archotol.1950.00700020697004
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