OZENA is a well recognized clinical entity, first established by Fraenkel1 in 1876, consisting of atrophic changes in the nasal mucosa, frequently involving the turbinate bones as well, crust formation and a uniquely offensive odor. Anosmia nearly always accompanies the condition. Previously, all conditions of the nose in which odor was the primary symptom, such as tuberculosis, syphilis, rhinoscleroma, leprosy and other varied conditions, were referred to as ozena.
Excellent and extensive reviews have been presented in the literature, and no attempt will be made to present them here. Many theories2 as to etiology have been presented, but predisposing hereditary and anatomic characteristics, structural changes, bacterial invasion, endocrine disturbances, degeneration of the sphenopalatine ganglion and vascular changes consisting of endarteritis obliterans are the most favored.
It is noted that no unanimity regarding the causation of ozena has been reached. Ozena may possibly be produced by a combination of several factors
THORNELL WC. OZENA: Streptomycin and Nitrofurazone Therapy. Arch Otolaryngol. 1950;52(1):96–103. doi:10.1001/archotol.1950.00700030115013
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