WHEN Leeuwenhoek made the first compound microscope, in Delft, Holland (Netherlands), about 1675, he opened up an entirely new field of anatomical study. Until that time, histology was a closed book and all observations were made on gross specimens. Anton de Heide, another Dutchman, noted cilia for the first time in 1683, and 12 years later Leeuwenhoek described ciliary movement. Nearly 150 years later Sharpey1 (1830) observed ciliary motion in the sinuses and trachea of dogs, and in 1834 Purkinje and Valentin2 discovered ciliated epithelium on the oviductal walls of certain vertebrates. For nearly 60 years no mention of cilia or their movement was made in the literature. Toward the end of the last century a number of articles appeared,3 and, as a result, there has been renewed interest in the physiology of cilia.
In many animals, bodily movements depend on muscular activity and ciliary action is
TREMBLE GE. DISTRIBUTION AND COMPARISON OF NASAL CILIA. AMA Arch Otolaryngol. 1951;53(5):483–491. doi:10.1001/archotol.1951.03750050003001
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