I. HISTORICAL DATA
MILITARY acoustic trauma caused by gunpowder explosions has probably been with us since 1353 A. D., when Typsiles of Augsburg introduced gunpowder to Germany, thus inaugurating its use by the people of western Europe.1 Several centuries were to elapse, however, before efficiently operating explosive weapons completely replaced the battering ram, the long bow, and the sword.In 1886, one who signed himself "Volunteer" brought the problem to the attention of the readers of the Lancet. He asked, "Can any of your readers suggest a remedy for deafness caused by rifle shooting?" The answer, presented by John Chippendale in a later issue, was, "Allow me to suggest the wearing of cotton in the ears while at rifle practice. This is done in France, at any rate, by artillerists to prevent deafness and bleeding of the ears."2A volunteer of a more recent date has testified to the perseverance of
DROOKER JC. WARTIME EXPERIENCE WITH SKULL INJURY AND BLAST AND THEIR EFFECT UPON THE EAR. AMA Arch Otolaryngol. 1953;58(5):546–574. doi:10.1001/archotol.1953.00710040572004
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