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July 1957

The Ear in Severe Malformations of the Head: A Discussion of the Formal and Causal Genetic Factors Involved

Author Affiliations

New York
From the Department of Otolaryngology, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, and the Presbyterian Hospital.

AMA Arch Otolaryngol. 1957;66(1):7-25. doi:10.1001/archotol.1957.03830250011002

This paper is the last of a series of eight dealing with malformations of the various parts of the ear. It is its purpose to review the ear changes in anencephaly and otocephaly, both severe malformations of the head in nonviable fetuses. An attempt will be made to analyze them according to the present state of our knowledge of the mechanics of head, and particularly ear, development. Finally, a short review of the ear changes in certain other double monsters will be given.

Anencephaly  Anencephaly (exencephaly, acrany) is a common malformation in man as well as in animals. It is characterized by defective development of the vault of the skull and the brain (for details see Ostertag). According to the degree of the osseous changes the cases are divided into two groups: (1) holoacrany, with extensive defect of the vault and absence of the posterior part of the occipital

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