Operations for improvement of hearing belong to the special field of modern otosurgery. The credit for the development and accomplishment of the operative technique for improvement of hearing in cases of otosclerosis belongs to Lempert. In cases of chronic otitis media, German otologists (especially Wullstein and Zollner) have developed methods during the last few years which can augment the improvement of hearing besides permitting a removal of the discharge of the ears. These operations are called tympanoplasties.
Tympanoplasties begin with the thorough removal of the pathological changes within the temporal bone. It is necessary to reconstruct a functioning alignment of structures for conduction of airborne sound by using the conditions present in the middle ear and closing or replacing the partially or completely destroyed drum with a free skin graft. Two functioning fenestrae are necessary for postoperative hearing success following tympanoplasty. This means that sound pressure difference and phase difference
WIEGAND H. Tympanoplastic Operations. AMA Arch Otolaryngol. 1958;67(2):239–245. doi:10.1001/archotol.1958.00730010245019
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