Plastic operations on the sound-conduction apparatus of the middle ear, like myringoplasty and tympanoplasty, are by now widely accepted, and attempts are under way all over the world to standardize the surgical techniques.32 Only a few years ago these plastic operations emerged from a period of trial and error. It might, therefore, be timely to glance back at the rocky past of the new procedures, and to review their development from earliest experiments.
Closure of perforations of the tympanic membrane by means of a prosthesis was tried as early as 1640, when Marcus Banzer3 used pig's bladder membrane stretched over an ivory tube as an artificial eardrum. More recently Hall17 described a new type of prosthesis; he applied a 5% celluloid-in-acetone solution to jute paper before placing it over the perforation. An artificial eardrum, fashioned out of a rubber-like plastic, known as Korogel, was independently proposed by
PICK EI. Myringoplasty and Tympanoplasty—from Earliest Experiments to Present Techniques. AMA Arch Otolaryngol. 1959;69(2):178–184. doi:10.1001/archotol.1959.00730030184011
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