This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables.
With the advent of stapes mobilization and tympanoplasty, we have all become interested in the problem of restoring the continuity of the sound-conducting mechanism. Due to these operations, we have seen or perhaps become more aware of this problem than in the past. Interruption of the mechanism by disease is seen frequently in our tympanoplasties, and we have heard this week about congenital malformations and stapedial fractures.
Certainly, we have been exposed to a lot of physiology in this Workshop. We have heard of Helmholtz and von Békésy, and this week Dr. Lawrence talked about the area factor, lever factor, hydraulic factor, and so forth. This all brings to us very clearly the importance of the sound transformer system.
A little bit of history should be added. In 1948 Juers clinically began calling attention to the near-normal hearing achieved by applying the tympanic membrane to the stapes in myringostapediopexy operations.