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April 1960

Simplified Concepts of Labyrinthine Function and ExaminationA Postgraduate Lecture

AMA Arch Otolaryngol. 1960;71(4):603-613. doi:10.1001/archotol.1960.03770040003001

The demand has been repeatedly voiced for a simplification of some of the present concepts of the vestibular mechanisms and methods of examination (Cawthorn and discussers,1 Arellano,2 Fischer and Wolfson3). Particularly the laws of Ewald,4 in their present form, are generally felt to be too complicated, even confusing, and hard to remember. In the present discussion, some views clarifying the matter, including a simplified form of the Ewald laws, are offered.

Functional Anatomy  The vestibular apparatus is divided into a central and a peripheral portion.5The Central Portion.—It includes the four vestibular nuclei in the fourth ventricle—some authors regard the cerebellum as a fifth—interconnected with each other by collaterals, cumulatively called by Marburg6 the "labyrinthine (vestibular) nucleus," and the secondary neurons with their central connections. The most important of these for the purpose of this discussion are (1) the lateral vestibulospinal tract,

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