ACTINOMYCOSIS is a chronic granulomatous disease which may be local or systemic with a marked tendency to produce multiple draining sinuses. The cervicofacial variety is the most common and is discussed in this paper. A similar disease in cattle is called "Lumpy Jaw."
A misconception of the past has been the belief that the disease was caused by chewing on grass or hay and was, therefore, more common in farm workers. The present concept is that of endogenous origin usually following dental or other adjacent soft tissue trauma or surgery and is unrelated to chewing of grass, etc.
Finding the classical sulfur granules or the myceliae in Gram-stained drainage or biopsy specimen is considered sufficient evidence for establishing the diagnosis with the demonstration of the typical actinomycete rosette in the pus or tissues. Culture and sensitivity tests should be instituted before antibiotic therapy if possible, and penicillin is the drug
THOMAS L. SOSS. Cervicofacial ActinomycosisAbstract. Arch Otolaryngol. 1965;81(4):421. doi:10.1001/archotol.1965.00750050432019