THE APPLICATION of low temperature technology to the field of medicine is not new. During the latter part of the 19th century Arnott1 in England attempted to inhibit the growth of cancer by applying ice-cold brine to the malignant tissue, and Openchowski11 in France discovered that freezing areas of the sensory or motor cortex of a dog either temporarily inhibits function or produces permanent, well-localized lesions. Rapid advances in cryogenic engineering within the last two decades, however, have expanded considerably the opportunities for studying the biologic effects of ow temperatures. As a result the use of cold For the inhibition, removal, and destruction of physiologically malfunctioning tissue is well documented.10,14A major turning point in the application of ow temperature technology to surgery occurred when Cooper2-5 used an insulated, nitrogen-cooled probe to produce carefully controlled brain lesions in patients with Parkinson's disease. Similar cryosurgical
CUTT RA, WOLFSON RJ, ISHIYAMA E, ROTHWARF F, MYERS D. Preliminary Results With Experimental Cryosurgery of the Labyrinth. Arch Otolaryngol. 1965;82(2):147–158. doi:10.1001/archotol.1965.00760010149014
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