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AROUND 1900, the medical and science faculties of the University of Würzburg were at their zenith and included such famous scientists as the botanist von Sachs, who in 1868 recognized the significance of chlorophyll and heliotropism, and the zoologist Boveri, whose studies form the beginning of the chromosome theory of heredity. Only a few yards from the place where Kolliker, the great anatomist worked and Corti, his collaborator, discovered and described the sensory end-organ of hearing, and Virchow first conceived, expounded, and recorded cellular pathology was the Institute of Physics of Würzburg where Röntgen (Fig 1) and later his two immediate successors received the Nobel Prize: Max Wien in 1911 for his work on the absolutely black emitter, a stage on the way to Planck's law of radiation; and Johannes Stark in 1919 for the discovery of the splitting of spectral lines in an electric field.
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen. Arch Otolaryngol. 1966;84(5):582–586. doi:10.1001/archotol.1966.00760030584027
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