WITH the increasing use of tracheostomy in many diverse conditions, complications have become more frequent some of which can be overcome by improvement in operative technique and postoperative care. Mediastinoscopy as a diagnostic aid has some advantages over exploratory thoracotomy in that it is simpler to perform and can be done under a local anesthetic with less hazard than the more formidable chest operation. The complications have been minimal and these will probably decrease as the procedure becomes more universally employed. Difficult foreign bodies still constitute a problem in endoscopic removal, and external surgical approaches were employed in some instances. Few of the present day endoscopists have had enough clinical experience to extract difficult foreign bodies endoscopically, so it is anticipated that external surgical procedures will be used more in the future.
Ciliary Activity.—In a comprehensive study of the ultrastructure and function of the human tracheal mucosa it was
Putney FJ. Bronchoesophagology. Arch Otolaryngol. 1967;86(1):117–121. doi:10.1001/archotol.1967.00760050119024
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