IN the summer of 1892, Frederick L. Jack was 31 years old and practicing otolaryngology in Boston. On July 20 he traveled to Atlantic City where he presented before the American Otological Society a paper entitled "Remarkable Improvement in Hearing by Removal of the Stapes."1 It is not surprising that the members of the society were skeptical of the claims he made as he related his experiences with removal of the stapes in 16 patients.
His courage to perform the stapedectomy had developed as the sequel to several years' experience with ossiculectomy procedures, which had been recommended by Kessel, Schwarze, Sexton, and others, for the relief of chronic middle ear suppuration. The ossiculectomy was simple enough. It consisted primarily of a transmeatal procedure with removal of remnants of tympanic membrane, malleus, and incus, along with granulations. Advocates of the procedure claimed that it sometimes cured the suppuration and occasionally improved
SCHUKNECHT HF. Frederick L. Jack (1861-1951). Arch Otolaryngol. 1968;87(3):328–332. doi:10.1001/archotol.1968.00760060330020
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