SURGICAL management of trauma is becoming increasingly important. Our present era may aptly be termed "the age of violence." The incidence of injuries resulting from traffic accidents, assaults, industrial and recreational mishaps, and military casualties is ever increasing.
The type of injury and extent of damage varies in direct relation to these differing causes. Thus, traffic accidents are more likely to cause multiple fractures. Assaults usually result in less extensive involvement. An understanding of the cause and mode of production of an injury will result in better treatment.
Of increasing incidence are the multiple injuries to the complex orbital-frontal-zygomatic-nasal-maxillary components of the facial skeleton. They are frequently compounded, comminuted, displaced, and contaminated. They may be complicated by involvement of special structures, ie, the orbit and ocular tissues, the nasal, oral, and sinus structures, the nerves, and cranial parts (Fig 1, 2).
These injuries have important effects on appearance, function, and
Dalitsch WW. Maxillary-Orbital Fractures: Improved Treatment. Arch Otolaryngol. 1968;88(5):523–528. doi:10.1001/archotol.1968.00770010525013
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