The wide variations in nystagmus intensity from standard stimuli in normal subjects suggest that, among other variables, variations in the rate and magnitude of transfer of the caloric stimulus to the inner ear may play a role. In order to study these phenomena, the authors devised a thermoelectric-controlled air stimulator based on the Peltier effect. The clinical and investigative applications of the thermoelectric air stimulator are based upon its simplicity, precision, and flexibility.
Gates GA, Young JH, Winegar LK. The Thermoelectric Air Stimulator: A New Instrument for Vestibular Testing. Arch Otolaryngol. 1970;92(1):80–84. doi:10.1001/archotol.1970.04310010106015
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