In assessing the physiological significance of middle ear muscles in normal or disease states it is wise to consider the possibility of muscular anomalies. Histological evaluation of 195 human temporal bones revealed two types of middle ear muscle abnormalities; ectopic muscle tissue and complete absence of the stapedius tendon. The former was found along the horizontal portion of the facial nerve in ten temporal bones from nine patients, the latter in two temporal bones from two different patients. All but one of these changes were found in middle ears with no other abnormalities.
Hoshino T, Paparella MM. Middle Ear Muscle Anomalies. Arch Otolaryngol. 1971;94(3):235–239. doi:10.1001/archotol.1971.00770070229009
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