This study was based upon 52 consecutive cases of mandibular fractures. All patients were initially managed by closed reduction. Twenty-eight of the 52 who were managed by closed methods met one or more of the usual criteria (location, displacement, comminution, status of dentition, or unfavorability) for open reduction. In spite of this, only four of these 28 cases subsequently required open reduction. We feel that the criteria for open reduction be reexamined in the light of results achieved in this series.
May M, Tucker HM, Ogura JH. Closed Management of Mandibular Fractures. Arch Otolaryngol. 1972;95(1):53–57. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/archotol.1972.00770080101010
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