Facial trauma, malignant tumors, and surgical injury were major causes of extratemporal facial nerve paralysis in our series of 32 patients on whom nerve repair was performed. Imperfect but excellent functional restoration was brought about by nerve suture in five patients, by nerve grafting in 18, and by nerve decompression in two. The results of nerve anastomosis in seven patients were disappointing. Success in the facial nerve repair required accurate preoperative diagnosis of the site and severity of the nerve injury and of malignant lesions by sialography and electrophysiological examinations. Process of functional recovery after the repair observed clinically and by electromyography was corroborated by the histological findings in experimental animals.
Kitamura T, Togawa K, Tsukamoto K, Naito J. Extratemporal Facial Nerve Surgery. Arch Otolaryngol. 1972;95(4):369–375. doi:10.1001/archotol.1972.00770080563016
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