Facial fractures which are too extensive or unstable for direct wire fixation may require external means of support. This external fixation is achieved by use of biphase acrylic splints, external bed traction, plaster headcaps, and metal headframes. Techniques of application and use are discussed in order to give an organized approach to those difficult cases.
Rontal E, Hohmann A. External Fixation of Facial Fractures. Arch Otolaryngol. 1973;98(6):393–396. doi:10.1001/archotol.1973.00780020407012
Coronavirus Resource Center
Customize your JAMA Network experience by selecting one or more topics from the list below.