Facial fractures which are too extensive or unstable for direct wire fixation may require external means of support. This external fixation is achieved by use of biphase acrylic splints, external bed traction, plaster headcaps, and metal headframes. Techniques of application and use are discussed in order to give an organized approach to those difficult cases.
Eugene Rontal, Albert Hohmann. External Fixation of Facial Fractures. Arch Otolaryngol. 1973;98(6):393–396. doi:10.1001/archotol.1973.00780020407012