Ten tracheal rings in 31 mongrel dogs were excised, followed by reconstruction using autogenous urinary bladder transitional epithelium supported with a silicone elastomer (Silastic) stent. Survival rates were low, but failure was thought to be mechanical in nature and correctable by improved techniques. All survivors showed good functional results, with a rigid airway and an epithelium-lined tracheal lumen.
Barker WS, Litton WB. Bladder Osteogenesis Aids Tracheal Reconstruction. Arch Otolaryngol. 1973;98(6):422–425. doi:10.1001/archotol.1973.00780020436016
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